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Scribal Profile
Current Manuscript:England, British Library MS Additional 18632
Sampled Folios:14r, 34r, 62r
Example Page:Display a full page showing this scribe's hand
Image Rights:Reproduced with permission of The British Library. All images on this website are reproduced with permission of the Libraries, Archives, and Owners of the manuscripts. Manuscript images that appear on this website remain in the copyright of the libraries where the manuscripts are held. Use of these images for any purpose other than private study without written permission of those libraries is prohibited by law.
Usage: whan
the scribe's graphs are consistently formed. 'a' varies only in the degree of angularity of upper and lower compartments. The top of lower case 'a' stands just above the level of surrounding graphs.
Usage: smal
here the upper compartment is more square with the head-stroke slightly curved giving the horned appearance to the graph.
Usage: And
the scribe uses a larger version of his lower case graph as the upper case letter as well as having several other variations, a very individual version of which may be seen in this example.
Usage: A
another version of upper case 'A' with approach stroke to an angular lower compartment and separate angled head-stroke.
Usage: dar
the scribe's 'd's are consistently formed. The lower compartment is almost always squared off. The upper loop does not usually extend back beyond the level of the lower compartment.
Usage: hadde
where 'd' joins 'e' biting occurs. Lower case 'd' is usually a small letter compared with the size of other graphs.
Usage: homward
although the scribe uses tags on some letters liberally, 'g' and 'r' for example, there is rarely a tag on final 'd'. Here the single example found on the three folios examined.
Usage: De
'D' in the running title to the folio.
Usage: goddes
the upper compartment of double compartment 'g' is generally angular. The lower lobe is usually more of an oval shape and sometimes smaller than the upper lobe.
Usage: degrees
the lower lobe sometimes appears to be in advance of the upper lobe, giving a slightly tilted appearance to the graph.
Usage: hauing
'g' in final position is frequently tagged in the way shown here.
Usage: wroughte
the scribe uses both 'ght' and 'ȝt' combinations.
Usage: hond
the scribe has several slightly different forms of 'h'. In this example, the stalk has a pronounced foot but the limb is straight with simple curved tail tucked away beneath the graph.
Usage: happed
in this example, the foot at the lower part of the stalk is more angled, there is an angled top to the shoulder and the tail-stroke has an upward curve which then turns down whilst still ending beneath the graph.
Usage: worthinesse
the scribe's most casual form of 'h'.
Usage: Her
the only difference between version 2 and this upper case example is the triangular wing at the left of the ascender.
Usage: aduerting
long 'r' is used in all positions in equal proportion to modern 'r'.
Usage: herte
again the scribe has several different variations for his modern 'r'. This one has a straight down-stroke with just a flick at the bottom of the stroke.
Usage: morw
'z'-shaped 'r' is used after 'o'.
Usage: hoor
a different and much more angular version of modern 'r'. Three short strokes are needed to produce this form. Short tags appear on some 'r's in final position.
Usage: semelynesse
the scribe uses sigma and long 's' for initial position.
Usage: knightes
kidney-shaped 's' is used in final position. But see version 4.
Usage: anguissh
long 's' is used in initial and medial positions. The graph often has a spike at the head and it is possible to see the approach stroke in the middle of the stem.
Usage: marchau(n)tes
the 'es' at the end of this word shown here. The scribe often uses this form of final 's' for plural nouns.
Usage: homward
as with other graphs described for this scribe, there are distinct variations in the style of graph selected. This form of 'w' is used almost exclusively on one of the folios examined. However, see version 2.
Usage: which
this graph is found on the same folio as version 1, but this is the scribe's favoured form on other folios.
Usage: Swering
the very angular form of version 2 used again, almost exclusively on other folios.
Usage: wole
a graph of even more extreme angularity with separated left branch.
Usage: pray
the scribe's regular 'y'. It has a short tail which curls up counter-clockwise back to the level of the bottom of the fork. The fork is mainly at the level of the bottom of the other letters.
Usage: peyne
the level of the fork is now below the level of the other graphs.
Usage: enemy
'y' with horned attachments at the top of the limbs.
Usage: Yf
'Y' as an upper case graph which is set high, more on a level with the head of 'f'.
Thorn and Yogh
Usage: þese
thorn is used mainly for the abbreviation of 'that' and it alternates with 'th' for 'these' 'this' etc.
Usage: haþ
very occasionally, thorn is used in place of 'th' for the verb ending.
Usage: myȝte
yogh seems to be used mainly as equivalent to 'gh'.
Usage: liȝtly
Upper Case Letters
Usage: Chestres
Usage: Royal
upper case 'R', like its lower case counterpart, is a small graph compared with other upper case letters.
Usage: Swering
the scribe has various forms of upper case 'S'.
Usage: Quintilian
More Upper Case Letters
Usage: Loth
upper case 'L' with shadow stroke with extra head-stroke.
Usage: Nov
Usage: Pars
Usage: I
upper case 'I' with shadow stroke, hooked head and double dots on the left of the shaft.
Usage: writinge
the scribe uses an 8-shaped mark for the dot above 'i'. Sometimes it may be seen on its side, like an infinity mark.
Usage: wel . whan
there may have been a hiatus in the copying of this manuscript. The caesura on later folios is marked by a square punctus, different from folios at the beginning of the manuscript. See version 3.
Usage: next ; bi
early in the manuscript, the scribe uses the reverse semi-colon mark for the caesura.
Usage: man(er)e
abbreviative mark for 'er', basically a diamond shape with attached fine semicircular stroke.
Centre for Medieval Studies, University of York, King's Manor, York YO1 7EP