Advanced Search   *   Manuscripts   *   Scribes   *   Authors   *   Letters
Home   *   About the Project   *   Bibliography
Funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council
Find What? Search by
Scribal Profile
John Marchaunt or Scribe D
Profiles for this Scribe:
4. London, British Library, MS Egerton 1991
Current Manuscript:London, British Library, MS Egerton 1991
Sampled Folios:9r, 21v, 93v
Example Page:Display a full page showing this scribe's hand
Image Rights:Reproduced with permission of The British Library. All images on this website are reproduced with permission of the Libraries, Archives, and Owners of the manuscripts. Manuscript images that appear on this website remain in the copyright of the libraries where the manuscripts are held. Use of these images for any purpose other than private study without written permission of those libraries is prohibited by law.
Usage: was
this scribe's 'a's vary little. Occasionally the down-stroke is slightly more angled at the head. The upper lobe is more often smaller rather than larger than the lower lobe.
Usage: Quartus
here the down-stroke is straight and the two compartments are of the same size.
Usage: And
probably the most usual of the scribe's upper case 'A's on the folios examined. However the scribe has a number of variants which may be seen in the Wild Letters for this manuscript. The first letter of a line is often tipped with yellow in manuscripts copied by this scribe.
Usage: And
an odd version of 'A'. The scribe appears to enjoy varying his 'A' graph.
Usage: dale
the scribe's classic 'd' which varies little .
Usage: syde
one of the distinguishing features of this scribe is this 'd' with open centre. He may use it frequently on a folio but then may not use it again for some time.
Usage: qd
in other manuscripts by this scribe, tagged 'd' is used with relative frequency. This is the only example on the three sample folios.
Usage: Diana
upper case 'D' and 'B' often have a 2-shaped element in front of the graph.
Usage: grace
both lobes of double compartment 'g' are about the same size, but the aspect of the upper lobe is more vertical whilst that of the lower lobe is more horizontal. These features are not so pronounced in this manuscript as in others by this scribe.
Usage: Among
'g' in final position is usually tagged.
Usage: abought
Usage: Good
upper case 'G' with vertical stroke bisecting the graph.
Usage: hert
the scribe's graphs are so evenly formed that it is difficult to find many variations. This is a typical 'h' with shortish tail stroke tucked neatly under the graph.
Usage: fleisch
on occasions the scribe does bend the tail stroke round counter-clockwise at the end.
Usage: besiliche
a more angular turn between descender from the limb and the continuing tail-stroke.
Usage: How
an angled foot at the bottom of the stem often distinguishes the upper case graph. As with several of this scribe's manuscripts, the initial letter of the line is tipped with yellow.
Usage: ner
in this manuscript the scribe uses modern 'r' almost all the time in every position. In some manuscripts by this scribe, modern 'r' is rarely seen (Oxford, Corpus Christi College 198, for example).
Usage: cry
on the three folios taken for sampling, long 'r' is used on fewer than five occasions.
Usage: for
'z'-shaped 'r' is used frequently, not only after 'o' but also after many round-bodied graphs.
Usage: afer
'r' in final position with upward turn. A typical feature of this scribe's punctuation follows.
Usage: was
8-shaped 's' is used in final position only.
Usage: houndes
kidney-shaped 's' is used rarely on the folios sampled in this manuscript. In other manuscripts by this scribe, this 's' is used almost exclusively in final position.
Usage: seie
long 's' is used in initial and medial positions. The small 'wing' to the left of the stem is visible in this image. Long 's' does not descend much below the level of surrounding graphs.
Usage: So
upper case 'S' tipped with yellow paint as the first letter in the line.
Usage: was
this is the consistent shape for the scribe's 'w' in most manuscripts, though perhaps with rounder aspect rather than the more vertical spread here. The left limb is smooth, slightly lower than the middle arm and the 'B'-shaped element to the right is neatly executed. However in Egerton1991, 'w' has a noticeably greater vertical impetus as in version 2.
Usage: which
many 'w's in Egerton 1991 have a small angled foot at the lower end of the left arm. With the more vertical aspect this has the effect of making the graph seem more angular.
Usage: world
intriguing evidence of approach strokes to the left and middle elements.
Usage: Was
an unusual example of a straight left arm. This word occurs at the beginning of a line. The missing curve at the top of the left arm could be the result of addition over an erasure which is not apparent.
Usage: poynt
in several manuscripts by this scribe, 'y' is usually dotted whilst 'i' has the curved stroke above seen here. In Egerton 1991, the scribe uses the curved stroke to 'dot' both 'i' and 'y' and does not differentiate.
Usage: þy
the left arm of the graph is almost straight.
Usage: ymage
the tail of 'y' varies in length. The fork is usually at the lower level of surrounding graphs.
Usage: Thay
an unusual reverse flick at the end of the tail.
Thorn and Yogh
Usage: þrostle
thorn is used frequently and for all purposes. It is not restricted to pronouns or adjectives but is used commonly for third person singular verb endings.
Usage: baþe
thorn is also used as an alternative to 'th' in all positions in a word. The graph itself has a shortish stem which sits on or extends just below the line.
Usage: ȝit
yogh is used for the sound 'y'.
Usage: forȝiue
the tail of yogh may be simply curved as in version 3 or it may turn counter-clockwise at the end.
Upper Case Letters
Usage: IN
Scribe D has several versions of upper case 'N' though this is his preferred shape in the manuscripts. There is an unusual variation here with a vertical line descending from near the head of the graph. See the explanation in version 2.
Usage: Now
the scribe frequently decorates 'N' with either a single diagonal line across the graph, or double parallel lines, or even a dot.
Usage: Thay
again, although the 'T' here is the usual shape with vertical central line or lines and loop at the right returning to the vertical, the head-stroke in this example is much shorter than usual. There are many examples of the graph with this shortened head on these folios.
Usage: To
a typical 'T' of Scribe D. The parallel line feature of decoration is used in a number of upper case graphs. However, the scribe may go for long sections without ever using them. Yellow paint tips the graph as the first in a line.
More Upper Case Letters
Usage: In
Scribe D's upper case 'I' is distinctive in that the approach stroke may be shorter or longer but joins the stem at the top, leaving no room for the cleft found in other scribes' versions of this graph. There is frequently a small bulge to the left of the middle of the stem.
Usage: I
here the head-stroke is shorter and the stem itself is longer, curving round clockwise just below the line. The scribe may use a shorter or longer stem, with or without the final turn.
Usage: And
another of the scribe's upper case 'A's. This graph is frequently selected to begin the 'Amans' gloss in manuscripts of the Confessio Amantis.
Usage: P(er)seus
again the scribe has a distinctive form of upper case 'P'. Although the ink has degraded in this example, it is possible to see the short diagonal stroke which descends within the lobe of 'P'. The scribe uses this kind of thick, cut-off diagonal stroke in other graphs such as 'C', and 'O'. The cross-bar for the 'per' abbreviation may be seen on the short stem.
Usage: swerd
I have seen this 'w' with almost horizontal strokes across the head of the graph occasionally in other manuscripts copied by this scribe.
Usage: is
this 's' with tags at top and bottom is also to be found occasionally in Scribe D's other manuscripts.
Usage: eschau(n)ge
Scribe D's macrons tend to be a straight line rather than the curving mark seen here.
Usage: athlantis
an oblique stroke as 'dot' for 'i' is used often in glosses. It is an alternative to the small hook-shaped mark he usually uses.
Centre for Medieval Studies, University of York, King's Manor, York YO1 7EP