classic anglicana 'a' of Scribe D. The graph varies little in its lower case form.
Scribe D has several versions of upper case 'A'. This version with squarish lobe and arching descender occurs frequently.
this version with double lobe is probably the least common upper case 'A'.
the head stroke may vary. It may be longer or more curved but generally projects quite a distance from the body of the graph.
the lower lobe of 'd' is squarish with a point created at the left side as the scribe uses a fine line linking from the previous graph and begins to trace the lower portion of the lobe.
the final 'd' in this word. The single occurrence on this folio of Scribe D's characteristic open-centred 'd'.
the upper loop is sometimes flung backwards forming a point rather than a smooth curve.
another graph which is consistently formed and which, like the 'd' graph is more pointed in aspect than in some of Scribe D's manuscripts.
'g' in final position with tag.
the horizontal stroke from the middle of the upper lobe joins to the following graph.
upper case 'G' with parallel line decorative feature found in many of Scribe D's upper case letters.
the scribe's 'h's vary little and are almost always carefully executed. The descending stroke tapers to a fine line beneath the graph.
an example of a tail-stroke which is tucked away somewhat awkwardly (as observed by Doyle and Parkes).
'h' in the 'ght' combination
an upper case letter at the beginning of a line with slightly more lateral spread and extension of the tail-stroke.
modern 'r' used in all positions. There is no example of long 'r' on this folio.
'z'-shaped 'r' used after 'o' and 'p' on this folio.
fine flourished addition to this final 'r'. Few 'modern' r's in final position seem to attract a flourish, perhaps because the graph is neater and more contained than long 'r'.
upper case 'R' at the beginning of a line.
8-shaped 's' used exclusively in final position. In other manuscripts copied by this scribe, kidney shaped 's' is the preferred choice in final position. However, there is not a single example on this folio.
long 's' is used initially and medially. In initial position the approach stroke manifests as the small fin to the left of the stem.
long 's' used medially. Scribe D tends to copy above the ruled line and this is visible here where the stems end at the line itself.
upper case 'S' with classic double parallel line trim.
a perfect example of Scribe D's 'w'. The centre stroke with looped top stands proud of the elements to either side. The loop is generally closed at the point where the 'B'-shaped element on the right of the graph begins.
the formation of the 'w' graph is very consistent but occasionally there are minor variations.
an unusual irregular graph.
an upper case graph in initial position in the line with waving head-stroke to the middle limb.
each image for the 'y' graph is very similar and emphasises the control and accuracy of Scribe D. On this folio, almost all 'y' graphs have a dot above.
Scribe D does not always dot the 'y' graph. He may copy an entire folio without the use of the dot. On this folio the scribe's script is controlled and appears to conform to a pre-determined set of stylistic features.
here the scribe dots the 'y' with the curved stroke he usually reserves for 'i'.
|Thorn and Yogh|
thorn is used regularly for pronouns, demonstrative adjectives, verb endings and elsewhere for 'th'.
the more usual shape of thorn with slightly longer descender than in version 1.
yogh is used mainly in initial position for the 'y' sound.
|p and I|
it is sometimes possible to see a space between the head of the stem and the start of the lobe of the graph.
the curved head stroke is typical of Scribe D's upper case 'I', as is the slight remnant of ink to the left of the shaft.
most of the upper case 'I's on this folio have a shadow stroke running the length of the descender. Scribe D uses this feature in some manuscripts but not in others.
|Upper Case Letters|
upper case 'O' and 'Q' have the same basic shape with a squared off top to the left and a thick stroke through the centre of the graph which resolves on the left side rather than continuing a complete bisection.
Scribe D has two versions of 'B', one with the 2-shaped addition to the left side of the graph and one without.
many of Scribe D's upper case letters are decorated with double parallel lines inside the graph. However, Scribe D does not use this decoration consistently and there may be many folios in his hand which show no trace.
Usage: Scribe D uses two forms of punctuation in these two lines. Whether they are from the copytext and represent Gower's original punctuation is difficult to tell though he frequently uses the up-side-down semicolon mark in his Chaucer manuscripts. It seems to represent a modern comma. The punctus mark divides phrases.
Usage: The scribe is conscious of the enjambement of the line and places a punctus after 'oon' where the sense requires it.
Usage: Again, the scribe uses a punctus with otiose flourish at the end of the sense unit.
Usage: It is difficult to decide whether this is meant to be a punctus or to act as a modern comma since the sense continues on to the following clause.