double compartment 'a' used throughout.
Usage: I planed
the upper compartment is usually slightly smaller than the lower one. Here the down-stroke is angled at the head.
the scribe uses a selection of upper case 'A' graphs.
'd' is almost always looped.
the upper loops extend back beyond the body of the graph.
a single unlooped 'd' found on the four folios examined.
upper case 'D' with double vertical parallel line decoration. Upper case letters are frequently tipped with yellow.
g' is double compartment. It usually sits well above the line with downward sloping slash from the head to join to the following graph.
'g' usually has a projection from the upper right side of the lower lobe which flicks upwards to finish.
another upper case graph with double vertical parallel lines to bisect.
unlike several of the scribe's graphs, 'h' is evenly formed. The head-stroke is thick and angles down obliquely, sometimes connecting with the top of the shoulder with a hairline turn.
the limb and tail-stroke usually end at or near the line.
'h' is not usually crossed but is perhaps crossed here because it is a name.
there does not appear to be any difference between the upper and lower case graphs.
modern 'r' is the most frequently used graph in all positions except after vowels and round-bodied graphs.
'r' in final position, whether modern 'r' as here, or long 'r' which is also used, often has a final flourish.
'z'-shaped 'r' is used after all vowels and also after round-bodied graphs.
long 'r' is also used but is not the most selected 'r' graph. The fork of long 'r' is usually above the line and the graph itself does not extend much below the line.
long 's' is used in initial and medial positions. The approach stroke to the shaft is often seen to the left of the stem.
most 's's in final position are 8-shaped. The upper compartment is smaller than the lower one.
sigma 's' is sometimes used in initial position. There is no distinction between this graph and the upper case version of 4.
upper case 'S'.
'w' is a distinctive graph in this manuscript. The version represented here is the one used most of the time. However, the scribe does have another version as may be seen in versions 3 and 4, and the distribution of the two versions may or may not indicate a separate scribe later in the manuscript.
'with' is frequently abbreviated to 'wt'.
occasionally this version of 'w' is used.
'y' is fairly evenly formed with short tail-stroke which usually turns counter-clockwise at or around the line.
the final turn of the tail is rarely extended to any great length.
|Thorn and Yogh|
thorn is used frequently on any occasion to replace 'th'.
the formation of thorn is consistent with slightly curved tapering stem and lobe attached which extends to line level.
yogh is used both as equivalent of the gutteral 'gh' sound and also as equivalent to 'y'.
|Upper Case Letters|
another example of parallel line decoration of upper case graphs. Here a separate set of lines branches off at an angle from the vertical.
a triangular element with hairline joining stroke back to the vertical bisector. Again an upper case graph tipped with yellow.
another variation of upper case 'A'.
2-shaped element at the front of the graph. Vertical line with 'B'-shaped element infilled with yellow.
|More Upper Case Letters|
the consistent formation of upper case 'I' with hairline approach stroke and single lump on the stem.
upper case 'N' with central dot. Other upper case graphs such as 'D' may also have a dot in the centre.
Usage: & here oþ(er) kyn
catchword on f34v.
Usage: Punctus elevatus; the scribe uses the punctus elevatus frequently.
Usage: Ampersand; the scribe has two versions of ampersand. It is a defining feature of the hand as it comprises a number of separate strokes. The version of the ampersand seen here has an oblique stroke running the length of the graph on the left side which is not present in the alternative version. Ampersand always has a covering stroke above.
for long runs of text, the 'i' graph frequently has an oblique dash above. However, the scribe is not consistent in its usage.