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Scribal Profile
Profiles for this Scribe:
4. London, British Library MS Royal 18 C.XXII
Current Manuscript:London, British Library MS Royal 18 C.XXII
Sampled Folios:6r, 174r
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Usage: mannes
Delta uses double compartment 'a'. The upper compartment is often, though not always larger than the lower compartment. Scribe D, whose hand is very similar usually has a smaller upper compartment for this graph.
Usage: name
the down-stroke on the right of the graph often extends below the level of the lower compartment.
Usage: And
this is Delta's most frequently used upper case 'A'. Initial letters of lines are tipped with yellow, as are those of Scribe D.
Usage: And
a single occurrence of this version of upper case 'A' on the two folios examined.
Usage: diceris
'd' is always looped and neatly contained.
Usage: hadde
Usage: discente
occasionally the upper loop does not settle on the lower lobe and the graph appears waisted.
Usage: Destroye
upper case 'D' tipped with yellow and bisected with Delta's typical double parallel lines.
Usage: good
double compartment 'g' whose lower compartment usually rests on the line. Since Delta frequently positions his text quite a way above the line it does not seem unusual for the graph to rest on the line itself.
Usage: þing
the lower lobe of 'g' is usually larger than the upper compartment. The horizontal bar which extends to the right usually leaves the top compartment at the head. In Scribe D's hand, the horizontal leaves at mid-point of the upper compartment. When 'g' is in final position, there is often a vertical tag attached which descends below the level of the line.
Usage: wroghte
seen in relation to 'h' here, the 'g' graph appears slightly tilted backwards.
Usage: Corage
although Delta's hand is neat he does not appear to have the same control over his letter formation as Scribe D.
Usage: hym
'h' is regularly formed. The tail usually ends on or just below the line.
Usage: hadde
'h' appears tilted in this example but may be related to the speed with which the scribe is writing.
Usage: Rightwisnesse
'g' appears to tilt backwards and 'h' is leaning away from the previous graph.
Usage: Here
there is no distinction between lower and upper case graphs.
Usage: werre
modern 'r' used exclusively (except after 'o') on the two folios examined.
Usage: þer
in final position 'r' sometimes ends with an extra flick upwards of the shoulder stroke.
Usage: bifore
'z'-shaped 'r' used after 'o'.
Usage: Restreigne
upper case 'R' with arching lead-in stroke which begins its ascent below the bottom of the stem.
Usage: suche
long 's' is used in initial and medial positions. The stem finishes at or just below the line.
Usage: was
8-shaped 's' used exclusively in final position.
Usage: suffice
very occasionally, sigma 's' is used in initial position. Delta also uses a larger version of the sigma 's' as one of his upper case 'S's.
Usage: Suche
an upper case 'S' of serpent shape which occurs in several of Delta's manuscripts. As with many of Delta's upper case letters, it is bisected by double parallel lines.
Usage: werre
Delta's 'w's are mainly of this type. The left limb is slightly shorter than the middle stroke. Scribe D almost always uses the anglicana 'w' looped at the head.
Usage: wende
Usage: morwe
the head of the 'w' graph stands above the level of surrounding graphs.
Usage: Whan
a more angular version of 'w' with turned foot at the lower end of the left limb.
Usage: gultyf
the tail of 'y' varies a good deal. It may have a straight tail stroke with tiny flick where it makes contact with the line.
Usage: preye
here the fork of the graph rests on the line and the short tail-stroke descends a little way below the line.
Usage: may
this version has the body of the graph above the line with tail descending to just below the line before it turns counter-clockwise and recrosses the line to join with the next graph.
Usage: hy(m)
'y' with macron above to signify the missing 'm'.
Thorn and Yogh
Usage: haþ
the stem of thorn may be straight.
Usage: þis
sometimes the stem of thorn is gently curved. Sometimes the stem ends on the line, but it can extend beneath, as in this example.
Usage: aȝeyn
yogh is used as representative of the 'y' sound.
Usage: Tirantȝ
yogh is also used as the 'z' sound in plurals.
Upper Case Letters
Usage: Thamaris
many of the scribe's upper case graphs have double parallel line decoration.
Usage: Of
Usage: Be
the 2-shaped element at the front of this graph is usually a part of the letter itself. Scribe D's 'B's usually have the 2-shaped element separated from the body of the graph with a vertical line to which the 'B' element is attached.
Usage: As
another type of 'A' in Delta's repertoire. Scribe D uses this form of 'A' particularly for the 'Amans' marginal glosses in the 'Confessio' manuscripts. Here Delta uses a shadow following the down-stroke at the right side of the graph.
More Upper Case Letters
Usage: It
Delta's upper case 'I' is slightly different from that of Scribe D although both have a single protuberance to the left of the stem. The hooked stroke to the head is more pronounced in Delta's form and he appears to turn the nib as he reaches the head of the graph.
Usage: I
the main shaft turns clockwise at the lower end and then curls back on itself almost completing the loop.
Usage: Ne
one version of upper case 'N' for both Delta and Scribe D is very similar. Diagonal parallel lines decorate the graph.
Usage: Nota
Decorative Features
Usage: Off
the two-line illuminated initials have no sprays attached and are rather utilitarian in execution.
Usage: The
the pen-flourished initials are also rather sloppily done.
Usage: Of
Centre for Medieval Studies, University of York, King's Manor, York YO1 7EP