this scribe's 'a's vary little. Occasionally the down-stroke is slightly more angled at the head. The upper lobe is more often smaller rather than larger than the lower lobe.
here the down-stroke is straight and the two compartments are of the same size.
probably the most usual of the scribe's upper case 'A's on the folios examined. However the scribe has a number of variants which may be seen in the Wild Letters for this manuscript. The first letter of a line is often tipped with yellow in manuscripts copied by this scribe.
an odd version of 'A'. The scribe appears to enjoy varying his 'A' graph.
the scribe's classic 'd' which varies little .
one of the distinguishing features of this scribe is this 'd' with open centre. He may use it frequently on a folio but then may not use it again for some time.
in other manuscripts by this scribe, tagged 'd' is used with relative frequency. This is the only example on the three sample folios.
upper case 'D' and 'B' often have a 2-shaped element in front of the graph.
both lobes of double compartment 'g' are about the same size, but the aspect of the upper lobe is more vertical whilst that of the lower lobe is more horizontal. These features are not so pronounced in this manuscript as in others by this scribe.
'g' in final position is usually tagged.
upper case 'G' with vertical stroke bisecting the graph.
the scribe's graphs are so evenly formed that it is difficult to find many variations. This is a typical 'h' with shortish tail stroke tucked neatly under the graph.
on occasions the scribe does bend the tail stroke round counter-clockwise at the end.
a more angular turn between descender from the limb and the continuing tail-stroke.
an angled foot at the bottom of the stem often distinguishes the upper case graph. As with several of this scribe's manuscripts, the initial letter of the line is tipped with yellow.
in this manuscript the scribe uses modern 'r' almost all the time in every position. In some manuscripts by this scribe, modern 'r' is rarely seen (Oxford, Corpus Christi College 198, for example).
on the three folios taken for sampling, long 'r' is used on fewer than five occasions.
'z'-shaped 'r' is used frequently, not only after 'o' but also after many round-bodied graphs.
'r' in final position with upward turn. A typical feature of this scribe's punctuation follows.
8-shaped 's' is used in final position only.
kidney-shaped 's' is used rarely on the folios sampled in this manuscript. In other manuscripts by this scribe, this 's' is used almost exclusively in final position.
long 's' is used in initial and medial positions. The small 'wing' to the left of the stem is visible in this image. Long 's' does not descend much below the level of surrounding graphs.
upper case 'S' tipped with yellow paint as the first letter in the line.
this is the consistent shape for the scribe's 'w' in most manuscripts, though perhaps with rounder aspect rather than the more vertical spread here. The left limb is smooth, slightly lower than the middle arm and the 'B'-shaped element to the right is neatly executed. However in Egerton1991, 'w' has a noticeably greater vertical impetus as in version 2.
many 'w's in Egerton 1991 have a small angled foot at the lower end of the left arm. With the more vertical aspect this has the effect of making the graph seem more angular.
intriguing evidence of approach strokes to the left and middle elements.
an unusual example of a straight left arm. This word occurs at the beginning of a line. The missing curve at the top of the left arm could be the result of addition over an erasure which is not apparent.
in several manuscripts by this scribe, 'y' is usually dotted whilst 'i' has the curved stroke above seen here. In Egerton 1991, the scribe uses the curved stroke to 'dot' both 'i' and 'y' and does not differentiate.
the left arm of the graph is almost straight.
the tail of 'y' varies in length. The fork is usually at the lower level of surrounding graphs.
an unusual reverse flick at the end of the tail.
|Thorn and Yogh|
thorn is used frequently and for all purposes. It is not restricted to pronouns or adjectives but is used commonly for third person singular verb endings.
thorn is also used as an alternative to 'th' in all positions in a word. The graph itself has a shortish stem which sits on or extends just below the line.
yogh is used for the sound 'y'.
the tail of yogh may be simply curved as in version 3 or it may turn counter-clockwise at the end.
|Upper Case Letters|
Scribe D has several versions of upper case 'N' though this is his preferred shape in the manuscripts. There is an unusual variation here with a vertical line descending from near the head of the graph. See the explanation in version 2.
the scribe frequently decorates 'N' with either a single diagonal line across the graph, or double parallel lines, or even a dot.
again, although the 'T' here is the usual shape with vertical central line or lines and loop at the right returning to the vertical, the head-stroke in this example is much shorter than usual. There are many examples of the graph with this shortened head on these folios.
a typical 'T' of Scribe D. The parallel line feature of decoration is used in a number of upper case graphs. However, the scribe may go for long sections without ever using them. Yellow paint tips the graph as the first in a line.
|More Upper Case Letters|
Scribe D's upper case 'I' is distinctive in that the approach stroke may be shorter or longer but joins the stem at the top, leaving no room for the cleft found in other scribes' versions of this graph. There is frequently a small bulge to the left of the middle of the stem.
here the head-stroke is shorter and the stem itself is longer, curving round clockwise just below the line. The scribe may use a shorter or longer stem, with or without the final turn.
another of the scribe's upper case 'A's. This graph is frequently selected to begin the 'Amans' gloss in manuscripts of the Confessio Amantis.
again the scribe has a distinctive form of upper case 'P'. Although the ink has degraded in this example, it is possible to see the short diagonal stroke which descends within the lobe of 'P'. The scribe uses this kind of thick, cut-off diagonal stroke in other graphs such as 'C', and 'O'. The cross-bar for the 'per' abbreviation may be seen on the short stem.
I have seen this 'w' with almost horizontal strokes across the head of the graph occasionally in other manuscripts copied by this scribe.
this 's' with tags at top and bottom is also to be found occasionally in Scribe D's other manuscripts.
Scribe D's macrons tend to be a straight line rather than the curving mark seen here.
an oblique stroke as 'dot' for 'i' is used often in glosses. It is an alternative to the small hook-shaped mark he usually uses.