the classic lower case double compartment 'a' of Scribe D. This lower case graph varies little in all his manuscripts. A typical feature is the slightly smaller upper compartment.
by comparison, Scribe D's upper case 'A's appear to be an area for the scribe's experimentation. There are sometimes as many as six or seven different graphs for upper case 'A' in a single manuscript.
the shape of the 'd' graph here is a classic indicator of Scribe D's hand. The loop of the letter does not resolve itself completely leaving the centre open. The scribe may use this form many times on a single folio or he may copy folio after folio and never use it.
the loop of the first 'd' is completed, the second 'd' is open in the centre.
the lower lobe of the graph has a squarish aspect. The curve of the loop arches back smoothly and returns in parallel with the squared side of the lower lobe.
Scribe D's upper case 'D' and 'B' frequently have a 2-shaped prong as a lead-in stroke which separates it from the main body of the graph.
typical shape of lower case 'g'. The lower lobe tends to have the appearance of being squashed laterally. There is usually a hair-line stroke which joins lower lobe to upper lobe. The projection from the middle of the right side of the upper lobe is usually present, whether or not there is a following graph.
occasionally the lower lobe does not connect with the upper lobe, leaving a visible space between the two. A small tag is visible where the pen was lifted.
in final position, 'g' frequently has a vertical tag descending from the horizontal finishing stroke of the graph.
upper case 'G' decorated with a pair of parallel lines within. This decoration is found frequently in D's manuscripts although there may also be many folios where the decoration is not used at all.
h' is almost always neatly configured in this manuscript, with tail-stroke forming a gentle curve.
here the tail-stroke flicks to the right. Although more apparent in other manuscripts copied in this hand, 'h' with counter-clockwise flick occurs infrequently on the folios examined here.
'h' in the 'ght' combination.
Scribe D's upper case 'H' is the same as the lower case graph, so here is an example of the flourished letter 'H' which begins the Latin gloss, which may or may not have been entered by the scribe himself.
modern 'r' used almost exclusively on the folios examined.
the single long 'r' on these folios. In other manuscripts Scribe D uses both long 'r' and modern 'r' but in a whole manuscript he can use long 'r' almost exclusively for long stretches but then revert to an almost exclusive use of modern 'r' for equally long periods.
'z'-shaped 'r' follows 'o', 'a' and a number of round-bodied consonants including 'p', 'b' and 'd'. An otiose stroke frequently descends from the left side of the finishing foot stroke.
double 'r' in a Latin gloss.
in other manuscripts copied by Scribe D, kidney-shaped 's' is the most common graph used in final position. In this manuscript, kidney 's' and 8-shaped 's' are used in equal proportion.
8-shaped 's' in final position.
long 's' is used exclusively in initial and medial position.
upper case 'S' with decorative parallel lines within.
the shape of this 'w' with left and centre arms closed at the head of the graph is the one most closely associated with Scribe D. The left stroke is usually straight with no turn at the lower end and the middle stroke stands slightly above the other two elements.
on the folios reviewed in this manuscript, the 'w' graph is more often presented with left and centre arms open at the head.
there is no difference between upper and lower case graphs. However, the left limb has a slight turn at the lower end.
the shape of 'y' is usually consistent. The length of tail may vary and D's usual habit is to dot the 'y' graph and to use a fine curved stroke above 'i'. In this manuscript the curved stroke appears above 'y' and the dot is rarely used.
'y' with very short tail-stroke.
although the ink is very degraded on this folio, it is possible to trace an arching line from the end of the tail back above the graph to end in a dot.
|Thorn and Yogh|
thorn is used regularly for pronouns, demonstrative adjectives, verb endings and elsewhere to replace 'th'.
yogh is not used regularly but several examples may be found on the folios examined.
|p and I|
lower case 'p' may sometimes be found open at the head where the commencement of the lobe does not quite connect with the stem. The curve of the lobe turns to join the stem with a horizontal stroke.
upper case 'P' frequently shows the same separation of stem and lobe, but with an extra stroke angling down within the lobe itself. Because of the addition of the loop for the abbreviation 'Pro', the return stroke from lobe to stem curves up, crosses the stem and traces an arc back to join the stem lower down.
upper case 'I' frequently has a dot in the centre on the left side of the stem. The head stroke may vary in length and curvature but is generally shaped as here.
the lower end of the stem sometimes ends short of the line with no final curve.
|Otiose strokes on t, f, e, g.|
Scribe D frequently finishes the cross-stroke of 't' with a downward vertical.
again the cross-stroke finishes in a downward otiose stroke.
final 'e' does not always manifest with an extra tongue angling upwards. However, it does depend on the nature of the material copied by Scribe D.
'g' also frequently has an extra fine stroke descending from the finishing tag attached to the graph.